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References - Three-Part fractures of the proximal humerus

Prosthetic arthroplasty for fractures and fracture-dislocations of the proximal humerus.
Tanner MW, Cofield RH
Clin Orthop 1983 Oct;(179):116-28
During the period from 1970 through 1979, proximal humeral arthroplasty with prostheses of the Neer design was performed in 49 shoulders (48 patients) with complex acute or chronic fractures and fracture-dislocations of the proximal humerus. Follow-up evaluation included physical and roentgenographic examination at least two years after surgery for 43 of the 48 patients and averaged 38 months (range, 2-10 years). Of the 43 patients with adequate follow-up evaluation, 16 had acute and 27 (1 bilateral) had chronic fracture problems. Pain relief was satisfactory in all of the 16 shoulders with acute fractures and in 25 of the 28 shoulders with chronic fracture problems. Active abduction averaged 101 degrees in the acute fracture group (range, 35 degrees-160 degrees) and 112 degrees in the chronic fracture group (range, 20 degrees-180 degrees). Complications in shoulders with acute fractures were associated with problems in tuberosity and rotator cuff healing . Complications were more frequent in shoulders with chronic fractures and fracture-dislocations , and were generally related to surgical difficulty, extensive tissue scarring, and distortion of anatomy. The Neer prosthesis affords satisfactory pain relief for both acute and chronic complex fracture-dislocations of the proximal humerus, but the return of function is governed by the security of tuberosity-muscle cuff repair, sufficient protection after operation, and long-term physiotherapy. If possible, surgery should be performed early to avoid the scarring and inelasticity that engender complications and limit functional recovery in shoulders with chronic fractures.

Modular hemiarthroplasty for fractures of the proximal part of the humerus.

Moeckel-B-H. Dines-D-M. Warren-R-F. Altchek-D-W

Shoulder Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York City, N.Y. 

J-Bone-Joint-Surg-[Am]. 1992 Jul. 74(6). P 884-9. 

A new biomodular prosthesis was used for the treatment of a displaced fracture of the proximal part of the humerus in twenty-two shoulders in twenty-two patients. The fractures were classified according to the Neer system; there were thirteen four-part, five three-part, and four head-splitting fractures. There were fifteen women and seven men, and the mean age was seventy years (range, forty-nine to eighty-seven years). The hemiarthroplasty was performed an average of eleven days (range, one to forty-five days) after the injury. The deltopectoral interval was used in all patients, and the prosthesis was implanted with cement in twenty of the shoulders. All of the patients participated in a supervised program of rehabilitation. The patients were followed for an average of thirty-six months (range, twenty-six to forty-nine months). Twenty of the twenty-two patients had a good or excellent result. The active forward elevation averaged 119 degrees; external rotation, 40 degrees; and internal rotation, to the twelfth thoracic vertebra. All of the patients except for the two who had a poor result had satisfactory relief of pain. The two patients who had a poor result had a successful revision with a modular prosthesis of the same design. The modular head could be removed, enabling the surgeon to gain access to the glenoid and to adjust the soft tissues. The over-all scores correlated inversely with the age of the patients and the interval from the injury to the operation.

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