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Adverse effects of Radiation

  • Joint stiffness and loss of function
  • Subcutaneous fibrosis
  • Erythema and hyperpigmentation of skin
  • Hair loss and skin flaking
  • Children may result in premature closure of growth plates Scoliosis may develop if unilateral spinal exposure Muscle atrophy and fibrosis
  • Enteritis, diarrhoea, obstruction or bleeding
  • Cystitis and hepatitis
  • Lymphoedema (preserve a strip of skin to allow lymph drainage)
  • Irradiation induced sarcoma

AO classification of fractures


  1. Simple fractures with disruption of a t least 90% bone circumfrance
  2. Multifragmentary but with some contact maintained between proximal and distal fragment
  3. complex fracture with no contact between proximal and distal framents
A,B or C 1,2 or 3 depending on basic fracture configuration
  1. Spiral fracture
  2. Oblique fracture
  3. Transverse Fracture


  1. Fractures that do not involve the joint surface (1,2 or 3 simple to comminuted)
  2. Part of the joint involved but the remainder still connected to the diaphysis
  3. Complete articular fracture with complete separartion of diaphysis

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