Ankle

Ankle joint: it is a hinge joint with a changing axis of motion between DF and PF. Talus also rotates during ankle motion. So, it is not a simple hinge. It is a very strong joint and stability depends on bony and soft tissue factors. Bony stability is provided by the shape of the ankle, built like a mortice. This is more important when load bearing as the bony congruency provides much of the stability. Fibula migrates inferiorly upto 1 mm during loading to deepen the mortise and increase stability. Lateral ligament complex resists INversion and IR. Anterior talo-fibular lig prevents anterior talar displacement (commonest ligament to be injured) and IR of talus. Posterior talo-fibular ligament limits ER of talus. Deltoid resists ER and Eversion. It is the strongest of the ligaments and is key to preventing lateral talar shift. 

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